The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the largest particle accelerator in the world. The experiments of the LHC project generate volumes of such large data exceeding resources data center CERN , and data processing should be distributed over 150 computer centers in 40 countries, which together form the largest system of grid computing the world, Network world Computing LHC.
Brazil makes a significant scientific contribution with the participation of the Laboratory of Experimental Physics High Energy (Lafex), the Brazilian Center for Physics Research ( CBPF ), the Group Relativistic Heavy Ion ( Griper ) and the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo (USP), in the select team that participates grid computing Open Network Environment LHC.
Latin America plays a key role in the global grid computing system to process data from experiments in high energy physics.
The CBPF collaborates with CERN in the LHCb project (Large Hadron Collider beauty), which investigates the differences between matter as known and antimatter by studying a type of particle called the B-quark. These particles are released after the collision in the gas and captured by a series of sub-detectors present in the LHC. The project has the support of about 700 scientists from 66 institutions and various universities.
The grid computing system with greater capacity for data processing in Latin America is to Griper, the Institute of Physics of the University of São Paulo, which receives up to 75% of all LHC processing in the region. The newly joined the network LHCONE, Griper part of the LHCb and Alice projects. In the latter, heavy ion collisions, such as lead, they are measured to study a new state of matter, called Quark-gluon plasma. Composed of the most basic elements of matter, to find explanations to complex issues of physics, like the origin of the universe.
In August 2015, Griper also was responsible for updating the LHC equipment for data processing Alice. The chip, called Sampa, and developed in partnership with the Polytechnic University of São Paulo, help register in images the exact time of the collision.
The third Brazilian grid computing LHC is connected to the Center for Analysis and Research of São Paulo ( Sprace ), from the State University (Unesp). The Sprace involved in the project CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid), which consists of a detector that uses a large magnet to identify the path of the particles produced by the collisions in the accelerator. This project was instrumental in the discovery of the Higgs Boson subatomic particle and the composition of dark matter, which current studies in astronomy took a new direction.
Another grid computing that processes data from CMS project is located at the Laboratory for High Energy Physics ( HEPGrid ), State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). In December 2014, with the support of RNP, the HEPGrid Supercomputing participated in the event, where a world record for data transmission broke. The group achieved a transmission rate of about 1.4 terabits per second, which was maintained for an extended period. The maximum rate obtained previously in the Supercomputing was 750 Gbps. The success was due to the use of technology of software-defined networking (SDN).
According to data of February 2014, CMS is one of the largest international scientific experiments in history, as part of the same 4,300 professionals, including particle physicists, engineers, technicians and students from 182 research institutions in 42 countries.
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